Sample review questions for first exam:

1) About how many differentiated cell types do vertebrates have? (assuming they have about the same number as human bodies are made of?)

2) What are some examples of animals that have only about 10 or fewer differentiated cell types?

3) Gastrulation subdivides embryos into what three parts.

4) How is that subdivision similar to Wolpert's "French Flag" concept,

5) and how is it different (from Wolpert's "French Flag" concept).

6) Neurulation subdivides what into the following three:
* neural tube ectoderm, * neural crest ectoderm, * somatic ectoderm

7) Draw (sketch) the process of neurulation, in cross section (in a sequence of 10 cross sections)

8) Re-draw the first and last of your ten sequential sketches, labeling which parts become neural tube, neural crest and somatic ectoderm. (Hint: the neural crest is right between the other two).

9) Somites are formed from which of the 3 primary germ layers?

10) Name the three subdivisions that each somite subdivides itself into.

11) What parts of the body will develop from each of these three subdivisions of somites?

12) Intermediate mesoderm subdivides itself into what three organs, from anterior to posterior?

13) During your embryonic development, what organs serve the function of excretion?

14) What subdivision of which germ layer develops into the kidneys that you have been using since birth?

15) Voluntary muscles (equals "skeletal muscles") develop from the cells of what subdivision of which germ layer?

16) How do skeletal muscle cells get distributed all over the body?

17) Sketch the position of the notochord relative to the neural tube and the somites.

18) If some mutation caused a human to form 40 pairs of somites, then their body would become abnormal in what way?

19) Somite formation breaks which kind of symmetry?

20) Amphibian and nematode embryos use what to convert themelves from having an infinite number of planes of reflection symmetry to having only one plane of reflection symmetry?

21) Flagella at Hensen's node allow developing human embryos to reduce their symmetry from what to what?

22) What symmetry, or combinations of symmetry, do each of the following have

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O (what if O were an exact circle?)   

P   Q   R    S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z      !       @      #      $      %        ^      &     *      ( )       +    =       





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23) Coiled snail shells have a combination or rotational and what other symmetry?

24) What phenomenon, discovered by Hans Driesch, indicates that developmental mechanisms of echinoderms have dilation symmetry?

25) List similarities of human egg cells and sea urchin egg cells.

26) List differences of human egg cells versus sea urchin egg cells.

27) List similarities of human development and bird development.

28) List differences between human development and bird development.

29) Compare early embryonic development of humans to early development of amphibians (=frogs and salamanders). What are some important similarities? What are some differences, besides the end result?

30) If you were watching a video of fertilization and early development of an egg cell that was either a human egg cell or a sea urchin egg cell, could you tell the difference between them?

31) Could an average person distinguish between them?

32) What special differences would you look for, that would allow you to distinguish which was the human embryo and which was the sea urchin embryo?
Hints: Polar bodies? Synchronous cleavage?

33) What are differences between a blastula and a blastocyst? What are similarities?

34) Contrast gastrulation in sea urchins embryos versus gastrulation in bird embryos.

35) Which is more similar to gastrulation in human embryos? In what ways?

36) What is epiboly? What is a specific example of epiboly?

37) Describe the three fundamentally different ways in which identical twinning occurs in humans.

38) Why do you suppose most people believe human twinning occurs by separation of the first two cells, at the two cell stage of cleavage?

39) What is a pluteus? Where were they first discovered? What did scientists think plutei were?

40) Pluteus is a word from what language, that starts with an L, that about a quarter of you studied?
Hint: All Gaul is divided into how many parts? What about their flag?

41) Contrast the symmetry of a pluteus with the symmetry of a starfish and a sea urchin.

42) What is the answer to life, the universe, and everything? (according to "The Hitch-Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy?")

43) How does the change of symmetry, from pluteus to sea urchin, contrast with the changes in symmetry that occur during embryonic development of most kinds of animals?

44) Draw sequential stages of embryonic development of a sea urchin.

45) In your drawings, label the animal pole, the vegetal pole, blastocoel, the archenteron, the blastopore, the primary mesenchyme.

46) Draw sequential stages of embryonic development of an amphibian.

47) In these drawings, label the animal pole, the vegetal pole, the blastopore, the neural plate, the neural tube.

48) Sketch sequential stages of embryonic development of bird eggs.

49) Contrast the meaning of the word "yolk" for an ordinary person as contrasted with an embryologist.

50) Contrast neurulation in teleost fish, as compared with neurulation of other vertebrates.

51) What are similarities and differences between invagination, ingression, and involution?

52) What are specific examples of invagination, ingression, and involution (what stages of development of what kinds of vertebrates?

53) What is the most surprising thing that you have learned about embryology, so far?

54) You also will be responsible for recognizing and labeling sketches or photographs of developing embryos.
Which kind of animal? What stage of development? What organs develop from which parts?

90% of the hour exam on Wednesday will consist of questions directly from this list, but may be converted to "fill in the blank", multiple choice, or other short answer format

The other 10% of questions will be in the same style as these 54 questions.


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