Notes for September 21 and 23

By what mechanism is bone caused to form at its proper locations?

(Perhaps by trans-membrane ion pumps?) (Calcium ions? Phosphate ions? Strontium ions? Fluoride ions?)

Or by secretion of "osteoid" protein, whose special property is to reduce the solubility of either calcium and/or phosphate ions.

How is bone stimulated to come into existence at its correct locations?

Does cartilage encourage bone formation?

What combination of causal mechanisms controls the shaping and enlargement of cartilage?

When cartilage calcifies, what happens?

Explain why/how the swelling pressure exerted by cartilage is proportional to the number of sulfate ions covalently bound to long chains of sugars, that are themselves covalently bound to collagen fibers.

How does electro-osmosis differ from the osmosis that depends on semi-permeable membranes?

Which kind of osmosis can differ in strength from one part of a cartilage relative to another part?

Cartilages can grow larger and/or longer by either of two completely different causes. What are they?

Chondrocytes increase in size adjacent to where bone is forming?
Suggest two or more different causal mechanisms that might cause cartilages to become larger and/or longer.

Has the physics of cartilage and/or bone been discussed in anatomy or physiology courses that you have taken? You were taught what?

By what mechanism were Fosamax and Boniva believed to strengthen bone and reduce osteoporosis?
Actually, they had these effects because of what different reason?
And what harmful side-effects do they have?

Describe and draw the changes in shapes, sizes, and alignment of cartilage cells within epiphyses, just before and during bone formation.

Can tendons and the walls of the larger arteries become converted into bone? How? Why? Where? By what means might you prevent this?