Biology 466 Unsolved Problems Fall 2010
The Dreaded Erroneous Research Paper Assignment:
You do this particular assignment as individuals, without help or collaboration from others, except me. If you need help, I will give it. But don't ask others without permission. The goal is to find a research paper in one of the following three journals: Science, Nature or PNAS (= the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA). All three of these journals contain research articles in all fields of science and even advanced mathematics in the case of PNAS. Please concentrate on articles in some area of cell biology. Also, be careful not to bother with news articles or even reviews or theoretical papers. PNAS has (almost) only research papers, with some of these purely theoretical. Nature and Science contain many news articles, with actual research papers only being a fraction of their content. Make sure you can tell the difference.
Find a research article that is based on some paradigm that has subsequently turned out to be mistaken. Xerox this article, and include a Xeroxed copy stapled to your written report on it. A systematic approach that some students have used in previous years is to choose some biological subject which you are reasonably confident that you understand, and then find out approximately when certain major discoveries were made, or theories proposed/accepted, and then simply get journal volumes dated a few years before the now-accepted theory became dominant, and use the index to look up the phenomenon. Most such papers dated before the new paradigm will be based, often explicitly based, on the earlier paradigm. This can be a liberating experience, like visiting a "parallel universe" in which actin and myosin literally contract (instead of sliding) or in which antibodies are shaped around antigens instructively, or in which mitochondrial membranes don't have electrochemical gradients.
Each student's report should consist of the following:First) A summary in your own words of what the authors observed and reported. Besides putting this in your own words, also try to separate what they actually observed as distinct from what they thought it meant. People may see blue lights in the sky; and they may think it's a flying saucer; and they may SAY that they saw a flying saucer; and somebody else would say that they saw the Aurora Borealis. But what they saw was blue light coming from the sky. In a biological experiment, the scientists may have seen some cells becoming more round when they added ATP. Would you say that they saw a force? Maybe it was really the cells' adhesions that changed, instead of their contractility? Or maybe cytoplasmic viscosity changed? It is good practice in critical thinking to sort out observations from interpretations, while realizing that even blue light is somewhat of an interpretation! Judgment is required.
Second) Summarize the authors' interpretation of their observations. This should include the paradigm (or perhaps several paradigms) on which they seem to be basing their interpretation and which may very likely have motivated their research program in the first place. They may or may not be explicit about what this paradigm is. The more confident people were about it in those years, the more "obvious" it may seem to them that it is true; and the less likely they are to explain their underlying assumptions. That is because they may not have regarded these as assumptions, but merely as "common sense".
Third): Try to re-explain the observations in terms of whatever theory is NOW the accepted paradigm with regard to that class of phenomena. Sometimes the observations fit new theories even better. This is an ultimate test of scientists' reliability. There are always temptations to discard data that doesn't fit. "Run number 6" may have been the time the voltage fluctuated because of the thunderstorm; or it may have been the time that some medium had been accidentally left out of the refrigerator the night before. So if their measurements fell outside expected ranges, the authors or your chosen paper may have been misled; therefore try to figure out (and explain) how and why they went wrong.
Where you can find bound volumes of the three journals to be used for your "Erroneous Paper Report":Science
Davis Library; near-complete from 1883 to 1993
Zoology Library has 1991 to present
Undergrad library 1966 to present
Geology library has 1963 to present
Chemistry library has 1980 to present
Math/Physics library has 1956 to present
Medical School library has 1992 to present
Zoology library (now in Wilson Library) has near-complete run on shelves from 1986 to present, but volumes were in the hall cabinets, but students could get them by request. Now I don't know.
jstor is an on-line service on which you can get nearly all back issues of all 3 of these journals, especially once you have found one or more alternative articles that you like and may want to use for your Erroneous Paper report. (I thank Prof. Bill Kier for showing me how to use jstor).
A Good Strategy for finding good erroneous papers to report on:#1) Make yourself a short list of 4 or 5 phenomena within cell biology (or genetics) about which there have been some major conceptual changes (Kuhn's "Paradigm Shifts") in the past 20 to 50 years. For example, muscle contraction is now known to be driven by active sliding of myosin along actin fibers; but before this was discovered, nearly everyone believed that muscle proteins actually contracted; and before the clonal selection hypothesis, people thought antibody binding sites were either molded around antigens, or (before that) that antibody specificities evolved by Darwinian natural selection, like other genes. Likewise, genes were thought to be proteins, etc. etc.
#2) If practical, find out approximately when these breakthroughs occurred (+/- 5 or 10 years)
#3) Get bound volumes of PNAS, Science, or Nature from the years BEFORE (or during) these different breakthroughs (paradigm shifts), and then use the indexes (bond into the volumes) to look up each subject (for example: muscle contraction, antibody synthesis, etc., and take a quick look at each of the papers that you find listed in the index under these subjects. Most of the papers won't be useful for this report, but maybe 1 or 2% will be, & you only need one.
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