Embryology Biology 441 Spring 2014 Albert Harris
February 26 lecture
Ectodermsubdivides by folding, to form 3 subdivisions: underlined below
Neural Tube Ectoderm: Which itself subdivides to form the following.
Motor nerves (one segmental motor nerve per somite).
Preganglionic Autonomic Nerves
Neural Crest Ectoderm:Which differentiates into many diverse cell types..
Postganglionic autonomic nerves
Melanocytes, and other mesenchymal pigment cells.
Schwann Cells (but not oligodendrocytes).
Facial Skeleton (Cell types that would be mesodermal in any other part of the body!).
Somatic Ectoderm: most of which becomes epidermis
A pair of olfactory placodes become nerves of nose
A pair of lens placodes become the lenses of the eyes
A pair of otic placodes become the inner ear (semi-circular canals, cochlea, etc.)
In fish and amphibians, the lateral line system develops from placodes.
The inner ear uses neuromast cells to detect sound, gravity & water flow; The lateral line system also uses neuromast cells to detect flow.
Semi-Circular Canals in a living Xenopus tadpole
Otoliths in the same living Xenopus tadpole
Lens of a mammal eye:
Eye cup with lens
video: axons in culture
Embryonic eyeball, with retina surrounding it.
Cross-section of developing retina
Cross-section of optic nerve
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