Embryology   Biology 441   Vertebrate Embryology, Spring 2014   Albert Harris


April 14, 2014

Autoimmune Diseases in one easy Lesson:

Theories in ITALICS.


Matters of life and death, UNDERLINED.

1) Shapes on binding sites are randomly created by DNA splicing.

2) Vaccination works by stimulation of just those lymphocytes whose binding sites fit germ chemicals.

3) The reason your own molecules rarely get bound by antibodies is because of (i) apoptotic self-destruction of any lymphocyte whose binding site fit any of your own chemicals.

[Or maybe...because of (ii) reduced sensitivity of anti-self lymphocytes.]
(iii) Can't detect antigens? (iv) Can't secrete antibodies? (v) Can't divide?
[Or maybe...because anti-self lymphocytes (vi) go to some hidden location.]
[Or maybe...because anti-self lymphocytes went through (vii) more VJD splicing]
[Or maybe...the same (viii) suppression as VJD splices that have frame shifts.]
[Or maybe...because( ix) anti-self lymphocytes get attacked by T-lymphocytes.]

Anti-self lymphocytes are (i, ix) dead, (ii, iii, iv, v, viii) insensitive, or (vii) have changed their binding site shapes.

_______________________________________________ _________________

Possible causes:

    Survival of apoptotic self-destruction.
    Re-activation of inactivated lymphocytes.
    Re-activation of VJD recombination, perhaps on the homologous chromosome.
    Escape from hidden location.

Can we suggest reasons for delay of 10, 20 30 years?
NOTE: Childhood Diabetes is an autoimmune disease, that starts in babies.


Alternative criteria for distinguishing self versus alien-shaped molecules.

    a) Presence in the early embryo.
    b) Continuous presence.
    c) High concentrations


Clues that may narrow the range of possibilities:

Double, triple or ten-fold higher frequency in women.

One third correlation in identical twins.

Delayed onset until age 10, 20, 30, 50. (this must tell us something)

Double frequency in New York, if you live there as a child (age 1-15)

Half frequency in Texas, & Mexico.
(Can eating barbecue reduce multiple sclerosis frequency to one quarter?
Or is it the sunshine? Hot weather? Exposure to parasitic worms?)


Immunity is an embryological phenomenon because...

1) The Thymus organ induces differentiation into T-lymphocytes.

2) The Bursa of Fabricius induces differentiation into B-lymphocytes.

3) Contact with antigens sometimes produces increased attack (vaccination);
But other times (normally) causes decreased attack (self-tolerance).

Please notice a symmetry (or anti-symmetry) between vaccination versus self-tolerance.

What causes us to make lots of antibodies specific to germs? Exposure to antigens.

What causes us NOT to make ANY antibodies specific to ourselves? Exposure to antigens.

Can opposite results have the same cause?

Medawar's theory was early exposure when we are embryos would produce tolerance, and exposure to antigens later in life produces allergy-immunity.

Vaccines induce many more antiserum lymphocytes when combined with "adjuvants" (irritants, that include "alum" (potassium aluminum sulfate)


back to syllabus