Embryology Biology 441 Vertebrate Embryology, Spring 2015 Albert Harris
April 17, 2015
Autoimmune Diseases in one easy Lesson:Theories in ITALICS.
Facts in REGULAR TYPE.
Matters of life and death, UNDERLINED.
1) Shapes on binding sites are randomly created by DNA splicing.
2) Vaccination works by stimulation of just those lymphocytes whose binding sites fit germ chemicals.
3) The reason your own molecules rarely get bound by antibodies is because of (i) apoptotic self-destruction of any lymphocyte whose binding site fit any of your own chemicals.
[Or maybe...because of (ii) reduced sensitivity of anti-self lymphocytes.]
Anti-self lymphocytes are (i, ix) dead, (ii, iii, iv, v, viii) insensitive, or (vii) have changed their binding site shapes.
Re-activation of inactivated lymphocytes.
Re-activation of VJD recombination, perhaps on the homologous chromosome.
Escape from hidden location.
NOTE: Childhood Diabetes is an autoimmune disease, that starts in babies.
Alternative criteria for distinguishing self versus alien-shaped molecules.
b) Continuous presence.
c) High concentrations
Clues that may narrow the range of possibilities:
Double, triple or ten-fold higher frequency in women.
One third correlation in identical twins.
Delayed onset until age 10, 20, 30, 50. (this must tell us something)
Double frequency in New York, if you live there as a child (age 1-15)
Half frequency in Texas, & Mexico.
Immunity is an embryological phenomenon because...
1) The Thymus organ induces differentiation into T-lymphocytes.
2) The Bursa of Fabricius induces differentiation into B-lymphocytes.
3) Contact with antigens sometimes produces increased attack (vaccination);
Please notice a symmetry (or anti-symmetry) between vaccination versus self-tolerance.
What causes us to make lots of antibodies specific to germs? Exposure to antigens.
What causes us NOT to make ANY antibodies specific to ourselves? Exposure to antigens.
Can opposite results have the same cause?
Medawar's theory was early exposure when we are embryos would produce tolerance, and exposure to antigens later in life produces allergy-immunity.
Vaccines induce many more antiserum lymphocytes when combined with "adjuvants" (irritants, that include "alum" (potassium aluminum sulfate)
back to syllabus